Four color wheel examples of color vision deficiencies.
(click to enlarge)








2016 IAGD Forum discussion on accommodations for students with CVD:!topic/the-iagd/6NDl-zvR9MM


Information and Resources on Color Vision Deficiency (CVD)

General facts on CVD from the National Eye Institute:

Adobe Illustrator CVD previews (choose View->Proof Setup->Proof Colors):

Colorbrewer (online tool for testing of color schemes for maps, with CVD safe option):

Color Oracle (free CVD simulator software for Windows/Mac/Linux):


EnChroma (corrective glasses for red-green CVD) and related articles:

Spectrum (Chrome extension to view webpages for various CVDs):

Visolve (free for personal use software that transforms color displays for various CVDs, available for Windows/Mac/iPhone):


Scholarly Articles on CVD

Cole, B.L. 2004. The handicap of abnormal colour vision. Clinical and Experimental Optometry, 87(4-5), pp.258-275.

Harrower, M., and Brewer, C.A. 2003. an online tool for selecting colour schemes for maps. The Cartographic Journal, 40(1), pp.27-37.

Hoffman, R.R., et al. 1993. Some considerations in using color in meteorological displays. Weather and Forecasting, 8, pp.505-518.

Jenny, B., and Kelso, N.V. 2007. Color design for the vision impaired. Cartographic Perspectives, 57, pp.61-67.

Light, A., and Bartlein, P.J. 2004. The end of the rainbow? Color schemes for improved data graphics. Eos, 40(5), pp.385,391.

Montana, A. 2013. Triple point: color blind. Elements, 9(3), p.165.

Saey, T.H. (2016). Color vision strategy defies textbook picture.  Vol. 190, No. 8, October 15, 2016, p. 10.

Spalding, J.A.B. 1999. Colour vision deficiency in the medical profession. British Journal of General Practice, 49, pp.469-475.